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  1、专业英语English article in Civil Engineering 土木工程专业英语课文 Lesson1 Careers in Civil Engineering Engineering is a profession, which means that an engineer must have a specialized university education. Many government jurisdictions also have licensing procedures which require engineering graduates to pass an。

  2、 examination, similar to the bar examination for a lawyer, before they can actively start on their careers. specialized专门的, 专科的 jurisdiction管辖权,权限 license许可(证),执照 bar 律师业 土木工程是一个意味着工程师必须要经过 专门的大学教育的职业。许多政府管辖部门 还有(一套)认证程序,这一程序要求工科 毕业生在他们能积极地开始(从事)他们的 事业之前,通过(认证)考试, 这种考试类似 于律师职业里的律师考试一样。 In the univer。

  3、sity, mathematics, physics, and chemistry are heavily emphasized throughout the engineering curriculum, but particularly in the first two or three years. Mathematics is very important in all branches of engineering, so it is greatly stressed. Today, mathematics includes courses in statistics, which 。

  4、deals with gathering, classifying, and using numerical data, or pieces of ination. mathematics n.数学 curriculum n.课程 branch n. 学科分科 stress 强调 courses n.课程,路线 statistics n. 统计学,统计 deal with涉及,处理 An important aspect of statistical mathematics is probability, which deals with what may happen when there 。

  5、are different factors, or variables, that can change the results of a problem. Before the construction of a bridge is undertaken, for example, a statistical study is made of the amount of traffic which the bridge will be expected to handle. In the design of the bridge, variables such as water pressu。

  6、re on the foundation, impact, the effects of different wind forces, and many other factors must be considered handle undertake vt.承担 amount of traffic n.交通量 impact碰撞,冲击 Variable 变量 大学里, 工科课程中着重强调数学、物理, 和化学,尤其在开始的二到三年。在工科所有 分支中,数学非常重要, 因此它被着重地强调。 今天, 数学包括统计学中的课程主要涉及集合, 分类, 和使用数字数据, 或信息。 统计数学的一个重要方面是概。

  7、率, 它涉及当 有改变问题的结果的不同的因素, 或变量时, 可能会发生什么。例如,在承担桥梁的建设 之前, 运用统计研究来预计未来桥梁期望承受 的交通量. 在桥梁的设计中,各种变量如作 用在基础上的水压, 碰撞, 不同的风力的作用, 以及许多其它因素必须考虑。 Because a great deal of calculation is involved in solving these problems, computer programming is now included in almost all engineering curricula. Computers, of course。

  8、, can solve many problems involving calculations with greater speed and accuracy than a human being can. But computer are useless unless they are given clear and accurate instructions and ination-in other words, a good program.be involved in涉及 program 编程序,电脑程 序 curricula n.课程 instruction指令 由于在解决这些问题。

  9、涉及大量的计算, 现 在几乎所有工科课程中都包括计算机编程。 当然,计算机能比人类以更快的速度和准确性 解决许多问题。但如果不给计算机清楚和准 确指令和信息,换句话说,一个好程序,它 也是无用的。 In spite of the heavy emphasis on technical subjects in the engineering curriculum, a current trend is to require students to take courses in the social science and the language arts. The relationship 。

  10、between engineering and society is getting closer; it is sufficient, therefore, to say again that the work pered by an engineer affects society in many different and important ways that he or she should be aware of. An engineer also needs a sufficient command of language to be able to prepare report。

  11、s that are clear and, in many cases, persuasive. An engineer engaged in research will need to be able to write up his or her finding for scientific publications. command 把握, 支配, 控制------翻译时需要引申 engage in v.使从事于, 参加 write up v.详细描写 scientific publication 科技出版物 虽然,在工科课程中,对技术科目着重强 调,但当前的趋势还是要求学生学习社会科 学。

  12、和语言艺术的课程。工程和社会间的关系 变得更加紧密; 因此,再一次充分说明, 工程师 负责(承担)的工程在许多不同和重要的方 面影响社会,这些方面是他们所知道的。并且, 工程师需要一种很肯定(自信)语言表达方 式来准备报告,这个报告要清楚明了,且在 多数情况下, 是令人信服的。参与研究的工程 师要能为科学出版物详细描述他们的发现。 The last two years of an engineering program include subjects within the students field of specialization. For the student who is pre。

  13、paring to become a civil engineer, these specialized courses may deal with such subjects as geodetic surveying, soil mechanics, or hydraulics. subject科目, 学科 geodetic surveying大地测量 soil mechanics n.土力学 hydraulics n.水力学 specialization 专业 最后两年的工科课程计划包括学生专业领域的学 科。为准备使学生成为一名土木工程师, 这些专业 课程可能会涉及诸如大地测量、土力学,。

  14、或水力学。 Active recruiting for engineers often begins before the students last year in the university. Many different corporation and government agencies have competed for the services of engineers in recent years. In the science-oriented society of today, people who have technical training are, of cou。

  15、rse, in demand. Young engineers may choose to go into environmental or sanitary engineering, for example, where environmental concerns have created many openings; or they may choose construction firms that specialize in highway work; or they may prefer to work with one of the government agencies tha。

  16、t deal with water resource. Indeed, the choice is large and varied.近年来,许多不同的公 司和政府机构为争夺工程师而竞争。在今天 这个重视科学技术的社会,受过技术训练的 人当然是受欢迎的。年轻工程师也许选择进 入环境或卫生工程领域工作, 例如, 在环境问 题方面创造的许多机会; 或他们也许选择专门 的高速公路工程的建筑公司; 或他们也许喜欢 与政府机构当中处理水资源的机构之一共事。 的确, 选择很多且多样。 When the young engineer has finally started actual practice, 。

  17、the theoretical knowledge acquired in the university must be applied, He or she will probably be assigned at the beginning to work with a team of engineers. Thus, on-the-job training can be acquired that will demonstrate his or her ability to translate theory into practice to the supervisors. assign。

  18、分配, 指派 on-the-job adj.在职的,现场的 demonstrate证明,示范,论证supervisor主管人,管 理人 当年轻工程师最后开始了真正的实践, 必须要运用 到大学中学到的理论知识。最初,他或她可能会被 分配到与工程队合作。从而, 他们会得到在职的培 训,这个培训将向管理人员证明他们将理论转化为 实践的能力。 The civil engineer may work in research, design, construction supervision, maintenance, or even in sales or management. Each of the。

  19、se areas involves different duties, different emphases, and different uses of engineers knowledge and experience. civil engineer.土木工程师 construction supervision施工监督,施工管理 土木工程师可能在研究、设计、施工管理、 养护或者甚至销售或管理单位工作。每一个 工作领域都涉及不同的职责,不同的着重点 以及运用不同的工程理论和经验。 Research is one of the most important aspects of scient。

  20、ific and engineering practice. A researcher usually works as a member of a team with other scientists and engineers. He or she is often employed in a laboratory that is financed by government or industry. Areas of research connected with civil engineering include soil mechanics and soil stabilizatio。

  21、n techniques, and also the development and testing of new structural materials. soil mechanics n.土力学 finance vt.供给...经 费, 负担经费 soil stabilization土壤加固法,研究是科学和工程实践的当中最重要的一 个方面。研究员通常作为一个团队的成员与 其它科学家和工程师一起合作。他或她经常 受雇于政府或企业提供经费的实验室。与土 木工程相关的研究领域包括土力学和土壤加 固技术, 并且还包括新结构材料的开发和实验。 Civil engineering projects 。

  22、are almost always unique; that is, each has its own problems and design feature. Therefore, careful study is given to each project even before design work begins. The study includes survey both of topography and subsoil features of the proposed site. It also includes a consideration of possible alte。

  23、rnatives, such as a concrete gravity dam or an earth-fill embankment dam. The economic factors involved in each of the possible alternatives must also be weighed. Today, a study usually includes a considerations of the environmental impact of the project. Many engineers, usually working as a team th。

  24、at includes surveyors, specialists in soil mechanics, and experts in design and construction, are involved in making these feasibility studies. Weighed 的翻译-----斟酌 topography n. 地形,地形学 subsoil天然地基,下层土,底土 concrete gravity dam 混凝土重力式坝 embankment dam n.填筑坝,土石坝 specialist 专家 feasibility study可行性研究 土木工程项目。

  25、几乎是唯一(独一)的; 就是 说,每个工程有它自己的难题和设计特点。 所以, 在设计工作开始以前,要仔细的研究每 个项目。研究包括勘测工程位置的地形和地 基特点。它还包括考虑可能的比选方案, 譬如 一个混凝土重力式坝或填土的土石坝。经济 因素与在每个可能的比选方案有关,也必须 斟酌。今天, 研究通常包括项目的环境影响的 考虑。许多工程师, 通常在一起工作组成一个 团队,这个团队包括测量员、土力学方面的 专家和设计施工方面的专家,来参与制定这 些可行性研究。 Many civil engineers, among them the top people in the field, work in。

  26、 design. As we have seen, civil engineers work on many different kinds of structures, so it is normal practice for an engineer to specialize in just one kind. In designing buildings, engineers often work as consultants to architectural or construction firms. Dams, bridges, water supply systems, and 。

  27、other large projects ordinarily employ several engineers whose work is coordinated by a system engineer who is in charge of the entire project. In many cases, engineers from other disciplines are involved. In a dam project, for example, electrical and mechanical engineers work on the design of the P。

  28、owerhouse and its equipment. In other cases, civil engineers are assigned to work on a project in another field; in the space program, for instance, civil engineers were necessary in the design and construction of such structures as launching pads and rocket storage facilities. consultant n.顾问, 商议者,。

  29、 咨询者 water supply system 给水系统 coordinate 协同 system engineer n.系统工程师 discipline学科 powerhouse n.发电站 launching pad n.导弹或火箭发射场, 发射台 storage facility贮存设备 许多土木工程师在设计领域工作,他们中的许多人 是这个行业的佼佼者。正如我们所见,土木工程师 研究许多不同的结构, 因此工程师专门研究一类结 构是通常的做法(一般的惯例)。在建筑设计中, 工程师经常作为建筑或结构公司的顾问。水坝、桥 梁、给水系统, 和其它大项目通常;聘用几位系统 工程师(总工程师) ,。

  30、他们的工作是协助负责整个 项目。在许多情况下, 也需要(涉及)其它学科的 工程师。例如,在水坝项目中, 电子和机械工程师负 责发电站及其设备的设计。在其它情况下, 土木工 程师被分配到其它领域的项目上工作; 例如,在空间 项目中, 需要土木工程师设计和施工诸如发射台和 火箭存贮设施这样的结构。Construction is a complicated process on almost all engineering projects. It involves scheduling the work and utilizing the equipment and the materials s。

  31、o that costs are kept as low as possible. Safety factors must also be taken into account, since construction can be very dangerous. Many civil engineers therefore specialize in the construction phase. Scheduling n 行程安排, 进度安排 utilize 利 用,使用 take into account 考虑,重视 civil engineer n.土木工程师 specialize in。

  32、 vt.专攻, 专门研究construction phase 施工阶段 在几乎所有土木工程项目中,施工是复杂的 过程。它包括项目的进度安排和设备的使用 以及材料,以便使得造价尽可能降低。必须 考虑安全因素,因为施工很危险。许多土木 工程师因此专门研究施工阶段。 Lesson2Modern Buildings and Structural Materials 现代建筑及结构材料 Many great buildings that are built in the earlier ages are still in existence and in use. Among them are the 。

  33、Pantheon and the Colosseum in Rome, Hagia Sophia in Istanbul; the Gothic churches of France and England, and the Renaissance cathedrals, with their great domes, like the Duomo in Florence and St. Peters in Rome. They are massive structures with thick stone walls that counteract the thrust of their g。

  34、reat weight. Thrust is the pressure rted by each part of a structure on its other parts. Pantheon 帕提侬神庙 Colosseum n.罗马圆形大剧场,角斗场 Hagia Sophia 圣索非亚教堂 Istanbul 伊斯坦布儿土耳其首都 renaissance文艺复兴时期 cathedral n.大教堂 gothic church n.哥特式教堂 dome n.圆屋顶,穹顶 duomo n.大教堂, 中央寺院 Florence 佛罗伦萨 St. Peters 圣彼得大教堂 massive adj.。

  35、厚重的, 大块的, 魁伟的, 结实的 counteract vt.抵消,对抗 thrust 推力引申为轴向压力 rt 施加压力等 ,作用,施加 许多伟大的建筑很早就修建了现在仍然还 存在并在使用中。在他们之中就包括希腊的 帕提侬神庙和罗马的角斗场,伊斯坦布尔的 圣索非亚教堂; 法国和英国哥特式教会, 和有 着宏伟圆顶的文艺复兴时期大教堂,如佛罗伦 萨的中央寺院和罗马的圣彼得大教堂。他们 是使用厚重石头墙体来抵消他们巨大自重的 巨型结构。轴向压力来自于结构的其它部份 对其的传导。 These great buildings were not the product of knowledge of。

  36、 mathematics and physics. They were constructed instead on the basis of experience and observation, often as the result of trial and error. One of the reasons they have survived is because of the great strength that was built into them-strength greater than necessary in most cases. But the engineers。

  37、 of earlier times also had their failure. In Rome, for example, most of the people lived in insulae, great tenement blocks that were often ten stories high. Many of them were poorly constructed and sometimes collapsed with considerable loss or life. 第二段 生词 instead adv. 不是...而是,代替,当作, trial and error。

  38、 n.反复试验,不断摸索 insulae 公寓,群屋 tenement block n. 经济公寓 poorly adv. 拙 劣地,贫乏地 considerable adj.相当大或多的 collapse n.倒塌,崩塌 这些伟大的建筑不是数学和物理知识的产 物。而是根据经验和观察建造的, 经常是不断 摸索的产物。他们依然存在的原因之一是由 于被修建得能承受很大的力量---在许多情况 下大于他们需要的力量。但更早的时期的工 程师也有过失败。例如,在罗马, 大多数人民 , , 居住在公寓里, 大的经济公寓经常有十层楼高。 许多修建得很拙劣且不时倒塌,造成了了相 当大的财产或生命损失。 Toda。

  39、y, however, the engineer has the advantage not only of empirical ination, but also of scientific data that permit him to make careful calculations in advance. When a modem engineer plans a structure, he takes into account the total weight of all its component materials. This is known as the dead loa。

  40、d, which is the weight of the structure itself, He must also consider the live load, the weight of all the people, cars, furniture, machines, and so on that the structure will support when it is in use. In structures such as bridges that will handle fast automobile traffic, he must consider the impa。

  41、ct, the force at which the live load will be rted on the structure, He must also determine the safety factor, that is, an additional capability to make the structure stronger than the combination of the three other factors. empirical adj.完全根据经验的, 经验主义的 in advance 提前;预先 plan vt.计划, 设计 take into accou。

  42、nt v.重视, 考虑 component adj.组成的, 构成的n.成分 dead load 恒载,永久荷载 live load 活载,活荷载 handle 处理,操作------承受 automobile 汽车 impact n.碰撞, 冲击,撞击 safety factor n.安全系数 rt 作用,施加压力等 然而,今天工程师不仅有经验信息的优势, 而且还有科学数据,允许他在事先进行仔细 的计算。当现代工程师设计一个结构时,他 要考虑所有组成材料的总重量。这就是所说 的恒载,他是结构自身的重量,他还必须考 虑活载,即所有人群、汽车, 家具, 机器, 等等 结构在使用中需要承受的荷载。。

  43、结构,比如 桥梁将要承受高速的汽车通行(行使),它 必须考虑冲力力,这个力是活载作用在结构 上的。他还必须确定安全因素,也即是,额 外的承载能力以确保结构的强度大于这三个 其他因素的组合作用。 The modern engineer must also understand the different stresses to which the materials in a structure are subject. These include the forces of compression and tension. In compression the material is pres。

  44、sed or pushed together; in tension the material is pulled apart or stretched, like a rubber band. In addition to tension and compression, another force is at work, namely shear, which we defined as the tendency of a material to fracture along the lines of stress. The shear might occur in a vertical 。

  45、plane, but it also might run along the horizontal axis of the beam, the neutral plane, where there is neither tension nor compression. Subject使受到, 使遭到 compression 压力,压缩 tension拉力 Press 挤压,受压 pull apart v.撕开 stretch v.伸展, 伸长 rubber band n.橡皮圈 at work adv.在工作, 在运转,在起作用 shear 剪力 fracture v.使破碎, 使破裂,断裂 。

  46、vertical plane n.垂直面 horizontal axis水平轴 neutral plane中性面 现代工程师还要知道结构中材料承受的不 同的力。这些力包括压力和拉力这对互反的 力。受压时,材料受到挤压或是被推倒一起; 受拉时,材料被撕开或是被拉长,就像一根 橡皮圈。除了拉力和压力以外,还有另一种 力作用于结构上,也就是剪力,我们定义使 材料趋于沿着力的作用线断裂的力为剪力。 剪力可能在垂直面作用,但是也有可能沿着 梁的水平轴,既不受拉也不受压的中性轴作 用。 Altogether, three forces can act on a structure vertical-tho。

  47、se that act up or down; horizontal-those that act sideways; and those that act upon it with a rotating or turning motion. Forces that act at an angle are a combination of horizontal and vertical forces. Since the structures designed by civil engineers are intended to be stationary or stable, these f。

  48、orces must be kept in balance. The vertical forces, for example, must be equal to each other. If a beam supports a load above, the beam itself must have sufficient strength to counterbalance that weight. The horizontal forces must also equal each other so that there is not too much thrust either to 。

  49、the right or to the left. And forces that might pull the structure around must be countered with forces that pull in the opposite direction. act on v.对...起作用,作用于 act 产生..的效果,担当,见效 vertical 垂直的 horizontal 水平的 sideways adv.向一旁 rotating转动的, 旋转的 turning n.旋转, 转向 motion n.运动, 动作 stationary固定的 stable adj.。

  50、稳定的 counterbalance vt使平衡 thrust 推力 opposite direction相反方向,反向 总之,这三个力会作用在结构上竖直的--那些向上或向下作用的力;水平的那些向 一侧作用的力;以及那些使旋转或转动的作 用力。以一个角度作用的力是水平力和竖向 力的合力。因为由土木工程师设计的结构要 固定或者稳定,这些力必须保持平衡。例如, 竖向力必须相互平衡。如果一片梁要支撑作 用在其上的荷载,梁自身必须要有足够的强 度来平衡这个重量。水平力也必须相互平衡 以使得没有向左或向右的太大推力。以及那 些可能使结构转动的力必须和相反方向转动 的力相平衡。 One of the mo。

  51、st spectacular engineering failures of modern times, the collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in 1940, was the result of not considering the last of these factors carefully enough. When strong gusts of wind, up to sixty-five kilometers an hour, struck the bridge during a storm, they set up waves al。

  52、ong the roadway of the bridge and also a lateral motion that caused the roadway to fall. Fortunately, engineers learn from mistakes, so it is now common practice to test scale models of bridges in wind tunnels for aerodynamic resistance. Spectacular 轰动一时的 Tacoma 塔科马美国华盛顿州西部港市 Narrows 纽约湾海峡位于美国,海峡 gu。

  53、st of wind阵风 strike撞击, 冲击 lateral motion横向运动, 侧摆 scale model缩尺模型,几何相似模型 wind tunnel n.风洞 aerodynamic resistance空气动力阻力 桥梁史上最有名的事故之一。 美国华盛顿州Tacoma Narrows大桥倒塌的录 像。 这次事故令桥梁的设计规范重新修改,风力 和共振分析成为桥梁设计必不可少的一部分。 这次事故之所以有名,还在于大桥的倒塌过 程被人录了下来。当时有一对新人正在桥头 举行婚礼,摄影师本来是去拍喜庆场面的, 不想却记录了一座大桥的末日。大桥在风中 扭动的场面令人震撼,只使用了三个月。

  54、。主 跨853m。 现代最为轰动一时的工程事故之一1940 年的Tacoma Narrows大桥,就是因为对这些 因素的最后一个因素扭转考虑的不够仔细 而导致的结果。当时在一次暴风雨中,时速 达到65公里每小时的强阵风冲击着大桥,他 们把大桥沿行车道吹成波浪形加上横向扭动 导致大桥的行车道落水。幸运的是,工程师 从错误中吸取教训,因此现在通常要在风洞 试验室中进行桥梁的缩尺模型试验以确定其 空气动力阻力。 The principal construction materials of earlier times were wood and masonry brick, stone, or ti。

  55、le, and similar materials. The courses or layers were bound together with mortar or bitumen, a tar-like substance or some other binding agent. The Greeks and Romans sometimes used iron rods or clamps to strengthen their buildings. The columns of the Parthenon in Athens, for example, have holes drill。

  56、ed in them for iron bars that have now rusted away. The Romans also used a natural cement called pozzolana, made from volcanic ash, that became as hard as stone under water. principal adj.主要的, 首要的 masonry砌石 brick砖 tile 瓦 course行列, 层 layer n.层 mortar砂浆,灰浆 bitumen n.沥青 tar焦油, 柏油,焦油沥青 binding agent虫胶粘合。

  57、剂,接合剂 rod n.杆, 棒 clamp n.夹子, 夹具, 夹钳 drill 钻孔 rust 生锈 natural cement天然水泥 pozzolana n.火山灰可用作水泥原料 volcanic ash 火山灰 早期主要的建筑材料是木材和砌石砖,石头 或是瓦片以及类似这类的材料。用砂浆或是 沥青,一种类似焦油的物质或是其他粘合剂 将各层结合在一起。希腊人和罗马人有时使 用铁杆或是夹子来加强他们的建筑。例如, 希腊帕提农神庙的立柱,为了插铁棒在立柱 中钻孔,这些铁棒现在已经锈蚀了。罗马人 也使用称为火山灰的天然水泥,从火山灰中 制成,当在水中时就会变得和石头一样硬。 Both ste。

  58、el and cement, the two most important construction materials of modern times, were introduced in the nineteenth century. Steel, basically an alloy of iron and a small amount of carbon, had been made up to that time by a laborious process that restricted it to such special uses as sword blades. After。

  59、 the invention of the Bessemer process in 1856, steel was available in large quantities at low prices. The enormous advantage of steel is its tensile strength; that is, it does not lose its strength when it is under a calculated degree of tension, a force which, as we have seen, tends to pull apart 。

  60、many materials. New alloys have further increased the strength of steel and eliminated some of its problems, such as fatigue, which is a tendency for it to weaken as a result of continual changes in stress. alloy合金 laborious费力的,艰苦的 sword n.剑 blade n.刀刃, 刀片 enormous adj.巨大的, 庞大的 tensile strength抗拉强度 。

  61、calculated adj.计算出的, 有计划的, 适当的, 适合的 eliminate vt.排除, 消除,除去 fatigue疲劳 钢材和水泥,这两种最为重要的现代建筑 材料,是在十九世纪发明的。钢材,主要是 铁合金和少量的碳,在那时要通过费力的过 程才能提炼出来,这限制它只能用于一些特 殊用途比如剑刃上。1856年在贝色麦法发明 以后,才能以低价得到大量的钢材。钢材极 大的优点是它的抗拉强度,也就是当在计算 等级的拉力作用下,它不会丧失其强度,这 个力,正如我们所见,可以撕开很多材料。 新的合金可以增强钢材的强度并且消除它的 一些问题,比如疲劳问题,钢材在应力持续 不断的变化作用下所导。

  62、致的强度减弱。 Modern cement, called Portland cement, was invented in 1824. It is a mixture of limestone and clay, which is heated and then ground into a powder. It is mixed at or near the construction site with sand, aggregate small stones, crushed rock, or gravel, and water to make concrete. Different pr。

  63、oportions of the ingredients produce concrete with different strength and weight. Concrete is very versatile; it can be poured, pumped, or even sprayed into all kinds of shapes. And whereas steel has great tensile strength, concrete has great strength under compression. Thus, the two substances comp。

  64、lement each other. Portland cement硅酸盐水泥 limestone n.石灰石 clay粘土 grind v.磨碎, 碾碎 powder粉末 aggregate 骨料 crush vt.压碎, 碾碎 gravel砾石 proportions 比例 ingredient n.成分,组成部分 versatile通用的,多用途的,多方面的 pour v.灌注, 倾泻, 涌入 pump 泵送 spray喷射, 喷溅 whereas conj鉴于,然而, 反之,尽管, 但是 complement vt.补助, 补足 称为硅酸盐水泥的现代水泥,在1824年发 明。它是石灰石。

  65、和粘土的混合物,它们加热 后碾碎成为粉末。它可以在施工场地或靠近 施工场地的地方和沙子,骨料(小石子,碎 石或砾石)以及水混合制成混凝土。成分的 不同比例可以制造出不同强度和重量的混凝 土。混凝土非常通用,它可以灌注,泵送甚 至喷洒成各种形状。并且鉴于钢材有很大的 抗拉强度,混凝土有很大的抗压强度。因而, 这两种物质可以相互补足。 They also complement each other in another way they have almost the same rate of contraction and expansion. They therefore can work t。

  66、ogether in situations where both compression and tension are factors. Steel rods are embedded in concrete to make reinforced concrete in concrete beams or structures where tension will develop. Concrete and steel also such a strong bond-the force that unites them-that the steel cannot slip within the concrete. Still a。


  ? ? 5月15日下午,“中国路桥工程有限责任公司商务英语培训班”开班仪式在中路大厦举行。我校副校长贾德忠,中国路桥工程有限责任公司党委书记兼董事长卢山、副总经理王利军、总工程师孙耀国出席仪式。开班仪式由中国路桥工程有限责任公司人力资源部总经理肖天玉主持。

  ? ? 仪式开始前,贾德忠一行受邀参观了中国路桥工程有限责任公司的展示室和荣誉室。双方就国际化人才培养、深化校企办学合作、共同服务国家战略要求等问题进行了会谈。

  ? ? 贾德忠回顾了北外与路桥公司多年来的合作友谊,向路桥公司对北外工作的信任和支持表示感谢,并畅谈了双方进一步拓展合作领域的美好前景。他介绍了学校为本期培训班量身定制的课程安排,将许国璋教授关于外语学习的名言与各位学员交流分享,希望大家能够始终保持对外语学习的热忱,在不断重复、不断补充、不断运用中,实现英语能力由量变到质变的飞跃。

  ? ? 卢山高度评价了北外优质的外语教学水平和师资力量,感谢北外为路桥公司培养输送了众多优秀人才。他介绍了路桥公司的发展情况、海外工程项目以及“走出去”过程中取得的突出成果,并指出,良好的语言能力是路桥公司国际事务迅猛发展的重要基础,也将深度影响企业未来的业务拓展。希望各位学员能够紧密结合时事热点,通过培训提升语言水平和跨文化交际能力,熟悉语言运用的规范性和多样性,在国际事务中展现中国路桥人的良好形象。

  ? ? 中国路桥工程有限责任公司人力资源部副总经理宫海龙强调了本期培训的纪律要求,宣读了管理规定和奖惩措施,并公布了各班班长名单。学员代表方菲向双方领导表示感谢,并代表全体学员表态,决心做到带着责任学、带着问题学、带着纪律学,全面提高语言能力和综合素质,圆满完成学习任务,向组织交上满意的答卷。

  ? ? 中国路桥工程有限责任公司与我校于2009年签订“中国路桥奖学金、奖教金”合作协议,至今已有290位学生和93名教师获得奖励,14名北外优秀毕业生加入了路桥公司。在此基础之上,双方首次在继续教育领域开展的合作项目顺利开班。为更好地服务公司海外业务发展,满足学员的英语学习需求,网络与继续教育学院根据电话测评结果,将138名学员分为十二个班次,设置了初、中、高三个层次的课程,并安排了涉及语言学习方法与跨文化交际能力提升等内容的专题讲座。力求在24周的有限时间内,帮助学员打下扎实英语基础,补充商务英语及部分工程管理英语知识,锻炼口语交际能力,为海外工作中与当地客户沟通交流扫清语言障碍。

  ? ? 网络与继续教育学院党总支副书记陈洪兵,教育基金会副秘书长吴浩参加仪式。



  台州路桥区英语培训哪家机构好?台州路桥区英语培训机构排名,随着中国国际化的进程,英语作为通用国际语言,在人们的日常生活、工作中也愈发的重要;参加英语培训的学员越来越多;市场上鱼龙混杂,怎么样选择一家好的英语培训机构成为学员的关注点 下面来简单说说市场上的英语培训学校分类以及主要培训内容。 先说客户群体定位,目前市场上有针对少儿英语和成人英语的培训机构,少儿英语比如较大的有英孚少儿英语、新东方泡泡少儿英语、瑞思学科英语,这些是大的连锁机构在全国都有校区,课程体系和师资比较有保障,其他各个地区也有很多特色的少儿英语机构,比如北外青少儿英语等。成人英语机构根据培训内容分为应试类语言培训和能力提高类的英语培训;前者如针对留学考试类的雅思托福SAT的较大培训机构有新东方、环球、新航道、朗阁等;这些在全国知名度较好,口碑反馈不错;后者能力提高类的比如商务英语口语、日常生活口语、实战英语培训大的机构有英孚、华尔街、美联、韦博,在英语口语、实战英语口碑反馈都还不错。 其次说一下选择方式,每个学员应该根据自己的需要来选择上述的英语培训机构;另外每个课程体系培训机构较多;建议学员可以去试听;毕竟每个学员学习的方式、习惯都不太一样,适合自己才是好的。 最后说一下费用,费用这块是根据学员的英语水平和目标成绩来定的,课时数的多少、师资的知名度、班级人数的多少都会最终影响价格; 平台整理了全台州路桥区地区口碑较好英语学校名录、师资介绍、价格表、校区地址等,欢迎在线咨询附近英语学校情况或者预约试听



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  近期有好朋友向我征询这样的问题,她问:有少儿英语培训班吗贵不贵。【可恩少儿英语贵不?】1个课程收费多少? 孩子自小就很淘气,分数总是亦是敷衍了事,虽然教师1直说淘气的小孩聪明,不过光这样也不行。英文教师常常与我反应,说他上课不专可恩科目英文价钱?可信吗?心,作业完成不好,我心底也挺着急的。想要找个少儿英语培训机构给他们,辅导一下英文。挺邻居做我妈妈可恩科目英文价钱?可信吗?做我妈妈说,好象可恩不错,是代言的,不知如何?有人了解可恩如何收费吗?1个课程价钱大可恩科目英文价钱?可信吗?概多少钱?坚信许多父母也都是有这样的问题,今日我就为有一些疑惑的父母好朋友介绍一下可恩少儿英语。

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